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Electric Field:

The region around a charge particle is called field. 

Source charge: The point charge producing electric field is known as source charge.

Test charge: The charge experiencing a force in the field of source charge.

Electric Field Intensity:

The electric field intensity at any point due to a source charge is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive test charge.

  • It is a vector quantity.
  • Its direction is same as the force experienced by positive charge.
  • It obeys superposition principle.

 Electric Field Lines:

Electric field lines are straight or curved imaginary lines. If a tangent is drawn at any point on it, gives the direction of electric field intensity at that point.


  • The electric field lines starts from a positive charge & ends on a negative charge.
  • The tangent to the electric field line gives the direction of field intensity.
  • No two electric field lines can intersect each other. 
  • These lines are always perpendicular to surface. 
  •  They are closely packed in strong electric field region and farther apart in weak electric field region. 
  • They don't form closed loops.
  • Electric field lines do not pass through a conductor.
  • Electric field lines pass through dielectric.

Electric field intensity due to a point charge:

Consider a point charge q is placed at point O in free space. P is a point situated at a distance 'r 'where a test charge q0 is placed.
The force experienced by the test charge q0 is, F=q0E
If there is a dielectric medium between the two charges, then the intensity is given by

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