**PHYSICS SYLLABUS (+2)**

**CHSE (ODISHA BOARD)**

__+2 1st Year Science:__

No. of Periods – 160

**Unit-I Physical world and Measurement (10 Periods) **

Physics and its scope, Physics, Technology and Society. Measurement, need for measurement, units of measurement, fundamental and derived units, Sl Units, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, errors in measurement, absolute, relative error, percentage of error, Combination of errors, significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Unit – II Kinematics. (24 Periods) **

1. Motion in a straight line : Rest and motion, Frame of reference, motion in a Straight line, position – time graph, speed and velocity. Concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion (elementary idea), uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity – time and position – time graph, Relation for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)

2. Motion in a plane : Scalars and vectors, general vectors and their notations, position and displacement vectors, equality of vectors, unit vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number, addition and subtraction of vectors, relative velocity, resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular components, Dot and Cross products of two vectors. Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion (equation of trajectory, range, time of flight, maximum height); uniform circular motion.

**Unit-III Laws of Motion (14 Periods) **

Concept of force, Newton’s first law, inertia, momentum and Newton’s 2nd law, impulse, impulse-momentum theorem, Newton’s 3rd law, Law of Conservation of linear momentum and its application. Equilibrium of Concurrent forces, static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion, Centripetal force, motion of a vehicle on a level circular road and vehicle on a banked road.

**Unit-IV Work, Energy and Power (12 Periods) **

Work done by a Constant force and variable force, kinetic energy, work- energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative and non-conservative forces, conservation of mechanical energy (Kinetic and Potential energies), motion in a vertical circle, elastic and in-elastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

**Unit-V Motion of System of Particles and Rigid bodies : (18 Periods) **

System of Particles and Rotational Motion : Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion, centre of mass of rigid bodies, Centre of Mass of a uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with its applications. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions. Moment of inertia, radius of gyration, moment of inertia of simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Parallel and perpendicular axes theorem and their applications.

**Unit-VI Gravitation (12 Periods) **

Newton’s law of gravitation, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (only statements), Gravitational field and Potential, gravitational potential energy, acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth, Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite, Geostationary satellites.

**Unit-VII Properties of Bulk Matter (24 Periods) **

1. Mechanical properties of Solids: Elastic Behaviours, Stress, Strain, Hookes’ Law, Stress-Strain diagram, Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus, Shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio, elastic energy.

2. Mechanical properties of fluids: Pressure due to a fluid column, Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes) effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Viscosity, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its application.

3. Thermal properties of matter: Concepts of heat and temperature, Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water, specific heat capacity : Cp, Cv. Calorimetry, change of state, latent heat capacity . Heat transfer: Conduction, Convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, qualitative ideas of block body radiation, Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law, Greenhouse effect.

**Unit-VIII Thermodynamics (12 Periods) **

Thermal equilibrium, definition of temperature (Zeroth law of thermodynamics) heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes, second law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot’s engine and refrigerator, Efficiency of Carnot’s engine (no derivation).

**Unit-IX Kinetic theory of gases: (08 Periods) **

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases- Postulates, concept of pressure, kinetic interpretation of temperature, mean and RMS speed of gas molecules, degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and its applications to specific heat of gases, concept of mean free-path and Avogadro’s number.

**Unit-X Oscillation and waves (26 Periods) **

1. Periodic motion: Period, Frequency, displacement as a function of time, periodic function. Simple harmonic motion and its equation, phase, oscillation of a spring, Restoring force and force constant, kinetic and potential energy in SHM, simple pendulum, derivation of expression for its time period. Free, damped and forced oscillation (qualitative idea only), resonance.

2. Waves: Wave motion, transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion, displacement relation for a progressive wave, speed of longitudinal wave in an elastic medium and speed of transverse wave in a stretched string (qualitative idea only), principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler’s effect.

UNIT WISE MARK DISTRIBUTION (Physics Theory)

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__+2 2nd Year Science:__

No. of Periods yearly – 160

**Unit-I Electrostatics (22 Periods) **

1. Electric charges and fields: Electric charge and its quantization, conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law, force between two point charges, force between multiple charges, superposition principle, Continuous change distribution. Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric field due to a dipole at any point , torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, Gauss’s theorem (statement only) and its applications to find field due to uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, infinitely long straight wire and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

2. Electrostatic potential and capacitance: Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, potential due to a dipole, potential due to a system of charges. Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors, insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with 86 Science Stream and without dielectric medium between the plates, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel energy sorted in a capacitor.

**Unit- II Current Electricity: (20 Periods) **

Electric current, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, conductance, resistivity, conductivity, effect of temperature on resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, carbon resistors, colour code of carbon resistors, combinations of resistors in series and parallel. EMF and potential difference, internal resistance of a cell, combination of cells in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge and meter bridge. Potentiometer-Principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Unit-III Magnetic effect of Current and magnetism: (22 Periods) **

1. Moving charges and magnetism: Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment, Biot-Savart law and its application to find magnetic field on the axis and at the centre of a current carrying circular loop, Ampere’s law and its application to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoid (qualitative treatment only); Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron. Force on a current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current carrying conductors- definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

2. Magnetism and matter : Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines, earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances with examples, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

**Unit-IV Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current: (20 Periods) **

1. Electromagnetic induction : Faraday’ laws of electromagnetic induction, induced EMF and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, self and mutual induction. 2. Alternating Current: Science Stream 87 Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current / voltage, reactance and impedance, LC oscillation (qualitative idea only), LCR series circuit, resonance, power in AC circuits, wattles current, A.C. generator and transformer.

**Unit-V Electromagnetic waves: (04 Periods) **

Basic idea of displacement current, qualitative idea about characteristics of electromagnetic waves, their transverse nature. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, Ultra violet, X-ray and gamma rays), including elementary ideas about their uses.

**Unit-VI Optics (25 Periods)**

1. Ray optics and optical instruments: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, lateral and longitudinal magnification, refraction of light, refractive index, its relation with velocity of light (formula only) total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibre, Refraction at spherical surfaces, thin lens formula, lens makers formula, magnification, power of lenses, combination of two thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror, refraction and dispersion of light through prism; Scattering of light: blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of sun at sunset and sunrise. Optical instruments: microscopes and telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

2. Waves Optics : Wave front, Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts, proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources, sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of a central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope (qualitative idea), polarization, plane polarized light, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and polaroid.

**Unit-VII Dual nature of Radiation and matter: (08 Periods) **

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, particle nature of light. Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson- Germer experiment, (only conclusions should be explained).

**Unit-VIII Atoms and Nuclei (14 Periods) **

1. Atoms: Alpha- particle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom, its limitations, Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

2. Nuclei: Atomic nucleus, its composition, size, nuclear mass, nature of nuclear force, mass defect, binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission, fusion, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties, radioactive decay law, half life and decay constant.

Unit-IX Semiconductor electronics: (15 Periods)

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative idea only), p-type, n-type semiconductors, semiconductor diode, V-I characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a half and full wave rectifier (centre tap), efficiency (no derivation). Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, Characteristics of transistor, transistor as an amplifier (CE configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and NOR).

**Unit-X Communication System: (10 Periods) **

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only), bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data), bandwidth of transmission medium, propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication, Need for-modulation, qualitative idea about amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation, basic idea about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).

**Books Recommended: **

1. Physics; Class-XII, Part-I and Part-II published by NCERT.

2. Bureau’s Higher Secondary (+2) Physics Vol.-II, published by Odisha State Bureau of Text Book Preparation and Production; Bhubaneswar.

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